15 Medical Tests Every Man Should Have
Medical screening tests are a great way to keep on top of your health. Think of them as basic maintenance, just like checking the oil and tire pressure to keep your car safe on the highway. To keep it simple, we've compiled a list of the most important medical tests every man should have -- along with what age to start and how often to repeat. Here's to routine maintenance for your health.
1. Cholesterol screening/lipoprotein profile
Cholesterol is a type of fatty protein in your blood that can build up in your arteries, so knowing how much cholesterol is present is a good predictor of your risk for heart disease. There are two kinds of cholesterol: HDL, or high-density lipoproteins, and LDL, or low-density lipoproteins. Confusingly enough, HDL is "good" and protects against heart disease, while LDL is "bad" and poses a risk to your heart.
Your total cholesterol reading combines the measures of both and is used as an overall reading; 220 is the magic number that you want to stay beneath. In addition, the profile measures triglycerides, which are fats in the blood that can also block arteries; you want them below 150 milligrams per deciliter.
What it is: A blood test for cholesterol, measured in milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dl); usually measures triglycerides at the same time
When to start: Age 20
How often: Every five years. If testing reveals your levels are high, your doctor will recommend retesting every six months to one year. If you have risk factors for heart disease in your family, the regular cholesterol test may not be specific enough; ask your doctor for an additional test called the lipoprotein subfraction test. It's more sensitive and checks the size of the cholesterol particles as well as the amount.
2. Blood pressure check
It seems simple, but checking your blood pressure regularly is one of the most important things you can do to protect your present and future health. One in every five adults, totaling 50 million people, has elevated blood pressure, also known as hypertension. When your blood pressure readings are higher than the cutoff of 140/90, it puts stress on your heart, leaving you at risk for heart attack and stroke. Many experts believe 120/80 is a healthier target to shoot for.
What it is: A physical reading using an arm cuff
When to start: Any age; best to begin during childhood
How often: Once a year if readings are normal; your doctor will recommend every six months if readings are high or if you're taking medication to control hypertension.
3. Diabetes screening
To check your risk for diabetes, doctors check your tolerance for glucose absorption, which means how readily your body digests sugar.
What it is: A blood draw performed after drinking a sugary drink; a fasting glucose tolerance test requires you not to eat for nine hours prior to the test.
When to start: At age 45 if you have no risk factors or symptoms. If you're significantly overweight, have high blood pressure, or have other risk factors for diabetes, such as family history of the disease, it's a good idea to get tested younger. If your insurance doesn't cover it, free testing is available at most major chain drugstores.
How often: Every three years
4. Bone density test
The loss of bone strength, called osteoporosis, afflicts nearly 10 million people every year, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Surveys show that men see osteoporosis as a "woman's disease," but this is a misconception. After age 50, 6 percent of all men will break a hip and 5 percent will have a vertebral fracture as a result of osteoporosis. As we age, minerals such as calcium begin to leach from bones, weakening them and leading to osteoporosis, which literally means "porous bone."
What it is: A specialized X-ray called a DXA (dual-energy X-ray) screens your spine, hips, and wrists as you lie on a table.
When to start: At age 65, everyone should have a DXA. But men who have risk factors for bone loss, such as being thin, taking corticosteroids, or having a history of fractures, should talk to their doctor about being screened now.
How often: Every five years