8 Causes of Memory Loss That AREN'T Alzheimer's

Worried About Dementia? There May Be Other Explanations


It's hard not to think of Alzheimer's disease when memory loss or a memory lapse darkens your day. After all, Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia are constantly in the headlines -- and of the more than five million affected Americans, 200,000 are under age 65. But many other situations can also produce this worrisome symptom.

Memory loss is just one Alzheimer's warning sign. Others, for example, include personality changes and problems managing money.

Your safest bet: "If you're concerned about memory issues, see a specialist," says psychiatrist Gary Small, director of the UCLA Center on Aging and author of several books about memory and cognition, including The Naked Lady Who Stood on Her Head. An evaluation will examine the type of memory loss, its timing, environmental factors (such as injuries or drug use), and other symptoms. (See also Worried About Your Memory? 5 Signs It's Serious.)

The eight following conditions are among the non-Alzheimer's causes of memory loss to consider:

Memory Loss Cause #1: Chronic Stress


Why it happens: When the body goes on hyperalert to face a crisis, a series of biochemical changes takes place that fuels the fight-or-flight response system. The chemical cortisol increases in the brain, for example, to mobilize energy and alertness. That's great when a saber-toothed tiger is chasing you. But when tension and anxiety become chronic, as with work or family problems, the system is overloaded with substances that are intended for emergency use only.

Result: The brain actually loses cells and has trouble forming new neurons. This creates problems with cognitive thinking, especially with regard to retaining new information.

What else to look for:

  • Is your sleep disrupted, or are you getting less of it? Sleep deprivation compounds the effects of stress on the brain, because memories are sorted and organized during normal sleep.

  • Are you multitasking your way through a stressful period? Straining the attention system drains memory, too.

Memory Loss Cause #2: Depression


Why it happens: Depression is usually linked to low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter connected to the arousal system. Concentration and focus are affected, impairing the ability to properly store new memories. It doesn't help that some depressed individuals dwell on sad events of the past, which can contribute to a lack of attention to the present, which in turn makes it harder to store short-term memories.

Three groups especially vulnerable to depression: older adults, caregivers, and people with dementia. When depression symptoms are treated, memory problems mistaken for dementia often disappear. In people with dementia, symptoms often improve with treatment (they may even go away completely for those with mild-stage dementia).

What else to look for:

  • Are other common signs of depression present? These include a sense of hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in formerly enjoyed activities, and changes in appetite or sleep.

  • Can you drive or pay bills? Someone with depression may not feel like doing such tasks, but they can, says psychiatrist Anton Porsteinsson, director of the Memory Disorders Clinic at the University of Rochester. Someone with Alzheimer's can't.

Memory Loss Cause #3: Medications


Why it happens: Drugs affect the entire system, and some interfere with the ability of brain cells to communicate. Sometimes this effect is produced by dangerous interactions between two different drugs -- a common problem for older adults, who often have multiple prescriptions. The average number of prescriptions filled per person of all ages, per year in the U.S. is 12.6 (refills and new), according to a recent Kaiser Family Foundation study.

What else to look for:

  • Have you started a new prescription recently? Be sure all your doctors know about all your medications. Don't be shy about reporting worrisome symptoms back to the prescribing physician.

  • Has there been a change in dosage? What seems like a small adjustment can have big effects.

  • Are you taking one of the drugs that cause memory loss? These include statins for high cholesterol, sedatives, antianxiety drugs, and medications for incontinence.

Memory Loss Cause #4: Malfunctioning Thyroid


Why it happens: In hypothyroidism, the body lacks sufficient thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism. The entire body, including the brain, is affected when metabolism runs too slowly. Cognitive problems are often an early warning sign of thyroid issues. Researchers are also investigating a possible connection, among women, between Alzheimer's and too high (hyperthyroidism) or too low (hypothyroidism) amounts of the thyroid hormone thyrotropin. (The association hasn't been seen in men.)

What else to look for:

  • Are you experiencing the other symptoms of hypothyroidism? These include fatigue, lethargy, weight gain, dry skin and hair, a loss of libido, irregular menstrual cycle, sensitivity to cold, and muscle cramps. Memory problems tend to happen in tandem with several of these other symptoms, although it's a common initial complaint.

Memory Loss Cause #5: Pregnancy or Menopause


Why it happens: Changing estrogen levels at key points in a woman's reproductive life can affect other brain chemicals estrogen interacts with. Hence, the so-called "fuzzy brain" of pregnancy and the "brain drain" of perimenopause. A 2010 study at the University of Bradford in England found that maternal memory problems are worst from the second trimester through three months postpartum, though not all women are affected.

What's more, these life passages are also times when women tend to be distracted by other intense symptoms (from excitement and nausea in pregnancy to menopausal hot flashes and the multitasking of being a sandwich-generation adult). Distraction adds to forgetfulness because information is not attended to, and therefore never stored.

What else to look for:

  • Are you feeling blue? Researchers believe that depression coinciding with pregnancy or menopause may also have a role in memory problems.

Memory Loss Cause #6: Excessive Drinking


Why it happens: Heavy drinking doesn't just damage the liver and kidneys. Imaging studies have shown proof of brain impairment, too. Shrinkage is worst in the frontal lobe, which governs higher intellectual functions, although other structures are also affected -- including those involved in memory.

Long-term excessive drinking can cause a condition called Korsakoff syndrome, a form of alcohol-induced dementia.

What else to look for:

  • Do you have other signs of alcoholism? These include a history of falls, excessive sleep, drinking alone to cope with difficult emotions, tardiness at work (due to hangovers), and morning drinking.

  • How old are you? The ability to metabolize alcohol declines with age. So two or three beers for a 70-year-old have the same effect as four or five beers did at age 50.

  • Are you drinking and taking prescription medications? Certain drug and alcohol combos can be toxic to the brain, even at relatively low levels of drinking.

Memory Loss Cause #7: Concussion/Head Injury


Why it happens: It's little surprise that, although the brain is protected by a thick skull, brain tissue is vulnerable to trauma. Traumatic brain injury (TMI) can be caused by the brain tissue slamming into the skull itself during a fall or sharp blow, or by an object piercing the skull -- a more obvious explanation for memory loss. The force of impact can cause direct damage or bleeding that causes more widespread problems.

What else to look for:

  • Have the cognitive problems come on suddenly? Alzheimer's disease develops slowly, but memory loss from head trauma can trace to the single incident.

  • Are there other signs of brain injury? These include numbness, excessive drowsiness, severe headache, weakness in arms or limbs, dizziness, dilated pupils, and slurred speech.

  • Do you participate in contact sports? Sometimes athletes suffer concussions in knocks and falls they consider mundane.

  • Has there been a recent car, bicycle, or motorcycle accident? These are among the most common situations for head injuries, especially if the person wasn't wearing a seatbelt (car) or helmet (cycle).

Memory Loss Cause #8: Normal Aging


Why it happens: Memory lapses aren't always a sign that something's wrong. Sometimes they're normal. After all, the brain starts its gradual decline as early as during one's late 20s and early 30s. By the late 40s and early 50s, most people get that "now why did I come into this room?" feeling and have occasional trouble remembering names of new acquaintances or items on shopping lists.

Dementia, such as Alzheimer's, isn't a normal part of aging. But occasional forgetfulness does tend to increase as we get older.

What else to look for:

  • How old are you? The risk of Alzheimer's increases with age. The likelihood of developing it doubles every five years after age 65, according to the Alzheimer's Association. About one in two people over 85 have it. Of course, this means half don't.

  • Are you finding it harder to learn new things? That can happen normally with age, as the ability to form new memories sometimes slows. But with Alzheimer's, following multiple steps is difficult-to-impossible, and new knowledge isn't retained well because these memories don't get formed. Also with Alzheimer's, memory troubles tend to affect not just new tasks but old familiar ones as well.

  • Are you scared? The irritation of forgetting an appointment is different from the deeper fear inspired by, say, forgetting how to use the telephone, says University of Wisconsin geriatric psychiatrist Ken Robbins.

  • Are others mentioning their concern to you? People with Alzheimer's are often unaware that they're even having memory troubles -- so if you're worrying, you may be just fine, experts say.

  • Can you still pretty much carry on your everyday life? With Alzheimer's, the answer is clearly no.


Paula Spencer Scott

Paula Spencer Scott is the author of Surviving Alzheimer's: Practical Tips and Soul-Saving Wisdom for Caregivers and much of the Alzheimer's and caregiving content on Caring. See full bio


4 months ago, said...

I turned 24 July 4th,2017. I have always had a bad memory then in (I think it was) 2011 I got hit by a car while crossing the road and about the only reason that I survived it was because of being completely drunk. After the incident my memory is now horriblely bad my elderly Grandmaw (who's memory is way better than mine) keeps telling me that my memory should not be this bad and that the hospital had told us that memory problems caused by the accident may only last up to 2 years. It has been well more than 2 years and it has not gotten any better. :(


10 months ago, said...

I believe stroke also interferes with shoet term memory. Neurons are damaged in the stroke likely causing loss of neural pathways to the "little boxes" where memories are stored.


11 months ago, said...

You have missed a few causes for memory. I thought I was going to be the worlds youngest dementia patient. In my 30s I had extremely low pregenelone.. I took a supplement for it and within a month I was able to recall things that I thought were lost for ever.


over 1 year ago, said...

My mum is 67 years old.she has just beaten acute myloid leukemia and has been in remission for just over a year. she now has COPD and heart failure plus severe kidney disease, but over the past few months we've noticed a quite rapid decline in her short term memory. She forgets appointments, forgets forgets what the appointments are for, forgets to pay for her shopping, forgets arriving somewhere then 30 minutes later not knowing how she got there.we are waiting for the results to see if its dementia as we are convinced that it is as the symptoms seem to be identical to our dad's who also had this cruel disease and which took our dad from us just 2 years ago. We are praying that its not dementia as we unfortunately know exactly what to expect which is why we are dreading it ,is there any chance we could be wrong and that it could be something else. we cry everyday wanting the results, but then again not wanting them,the only reason we asked our mum to get tested was because if she does have it and it was further down the line and the doctors say we could of done something if she had been diagnosed earlier we wouldn't of been able to live with ourselves, can anyone give us hope PLEASE! !


over 2 years ago, said...

I've been looking around for information concerning the causes of memory loss since my husband has been having difficulty remembering things for the past year. I'm quite worried about him. I've also found this article about the causes of short-term memory loss/


over 2 years ago, said...

Hy well.I'm here to find answers don't know.m if it's any good, my grandmother who is now like 73 was pretty great condition 2 years ago, I've.been oway for years so can't really.tell when it all started, but I do remember she hated her husband cuz he treated her like crap, this man was evil to her she was really.mad at him and her 7 children didn't really care or do anything to stop what he would do or say yo her, then they took her to the doctors because they thought something was wrong witb her and that's when they started giving her drugs don't know what they were.called but then she started forgetting everything she.couldn't drive anymore needed.people.help for everything but yet she would come visit yo my house and talk about things and.repeat them.over and over, then she would go home. well it continued for 1year 1/2. and it.would get.worse untill she just couldn't somethings on her own but still.want to be with us and come visit just to sit on our couch, so they locked her up and have.nuns and caregivers taking care of her and her.kids visit like once a month. they say she has Alzheimer's now she.don't talk.but.wants to and studers and is really happy when we visit her. caregiver says she still.tries to read and do.her.morning walks like she always did. I believe their is some.other answers to all of this.


almost 3 years ago, said...

All of it. My suspecions were confirmed...Any stress that can be avoided should be, even if it means quitting a stressful job if it means making less money ,do it. Nothing is worth your mental health...


almost 3 years ago, said...

As I near 70 years, I occasionally experience brain cramps. I just figure that there is over sixty years worth of stuff stored between my ears and my filing system is unique to me. Some of those older file cabinets are real dusty and a little rusty. Digging out a piece of trivia takes time and sometimes the effort isn't worth it. What is kind of funny is when something that I was trying to remember yesterday jumps out of my mouth today. I guess I am fortunate, my kids keep me connected to technology. I'm not as good as some but better than most. I also teach post secondary school and those young people challenge me and keep me at the top of my game though I might be a little slow. I am just slower at everything anyway.


over 3 years ago, said...

One possible cause of short-term memory loss not mentioned is Parkinson's disease.


almost 4 years ago, said...

thx "Caring",For Yet AnotheR Insightful/Educational Article. They're Really Reassuring Too. Even If The Info Is Not All Too "Settling" For one's Indiv Circumstance(S).


almost 4 years ago, said...

My husband is 40 and his memory is deteriorating rapidly. He has called me in a panic because he cannot remember where he's going or how to get home. I'm very scared for him. He cannot recall what he did earlier in the day, let alone yesterday. His doctor does not seem to be interested in getting to the bottom of this. Any advice?


almost 4 years ago, said...

Very little, if at all, discussions about physical abuse to the head and results in a concussion. This is a major concern and also may explain memory loss in older people. After all, football players begin to experience difficulties in the late 30s and 40s, so could physical abuse victims. These people don't show concussion symptoms until long after the concussion(s) are inflicted.


almost 4 years ago, said...

Paula, Thank you for this article, right on target! Through my experiences backed by research as a dementia practitioner, dementia administrator and director of marketing for a retirement community, I also see lack of NUTRITION as a cause of cognitive decline. Brain glia cells supporting neuron activity need nutrition to keep our brain thoughts moving and flowing, especially as we grow into our elder years. Usually the first life activity of decline as we add years is shopping then cooking for ourselves. Consistently we snack on and have full meals of junk food which can be harmful to the functioning of our brain. We need to encourage our seniors to consistently eat healthy fresh food to obtain the most nutrients. Here’s to Healthy Aging! Janet Rich Pittman


almost 4 years ago, said...

I just thought it was important to mention that Lyme disease can cause symptoms of Alz. too, especially if someone has had it a long time. I have to wonder how many people go untreated and end up in a nursing home with an Alz. diagnoses when it's really Lyme disease, which could've been treated. My daughter and I have it and know the neurological symptoms that can go with it. Looking back over my mom's last 8 years makes me wonder if she maybe had it too. She had several of the symptoms of it. I hope this will help someone.


almost 4 years ago, said...

Forgot a very simple and relatively easy cause which can be treated with almost immediate results. B12 deficiency and related pernicious anemia. My mother was mis-diagnosed with alzheimers, and it took a lot of determination and bucking the system to get the true diagnosis. Now she has a new doctor and is living on her own managing a 10 room house, paying her bills, using her computer. And she went from the edge of death and utter confusion toward noticeable improvement after 4 daily shots of B12. A hematologist found this. She is now taking monthly injections, going to gym 3 times a week to overcome the neurological and physical damage caused by this oversight. Literally, it was like watching a miracle. As soon as treatment began we could see improvement - better by the hour, literally. (Her physician had strongly recommended a care center/nursing home which we refused. We knew the diagnosis was wrong.)


almost 4 years ago, said...

I am the only person I know who openly talks about my dementia. I was diagnosed a little over one year ago. It never occured to me until today to use the word to find help. Thank you for this web sight!