The throat is a general term referring to a tube-like structure that is about five inches in length and is located directly behind the nose to just inferior to the vocal cords. The scientific or medical name for throat cancer includes both laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. Other names refer to more specific anatomical segments of the pharynx. Hypopharynx cancer is located in the lower portion of the pharynx, oropharynx cancer is located in the central area of the pharynx, and nasopharynx cancer is located behind the nasal cavity. The most common scientific or medical term used for throat cancer is pharyngeal cancer.