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According to Wikipedia, Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS or APLS) or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a disorder of coagulation that causes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, or severe preeclampsia. The syndrome occurs due to the autoimmune production of antibodies against phospholipid (aPL), a cell membrane substance. In particular, the disease is characterised by antibodies against cardiolipin (anti-cardiolipin antibodies) and Î²2 glycoprotein I.
The term "primary antiphospholipid syndrome" is used when APS occurs in the absence of any other related disease. APS is commonly seen in conjunction with other autoimmune diseases; the term "secondary antiphospholipid syndrome" is used when APS coexists with other diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In rare cases, APS leads to rapid organ failure due to generalised thrombosis and a high risk of death; this is termed "catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome" (CAPS).
Antiphospholipid syndrome is sometimes referred to as Hughes syndrome after the rheumatologist Dr. Graham R.V. Hughes (St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK) who worked at the Louise Coote Lupus Unit at St Thomas' Hospital in London.
Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause (arterial/venous) blood clots (in any organ system) or pregnancy-related complications. In APS patients, the most common venous event is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities (blood clot of the deep veins of the legs) and the most common arterial event is stroke.